It is ideal to have both good mental health and good physical health. Therefore, it is necessary to have an annual health checkup, at least once a year, to assess your current health status.
As part of this check-up, a urine test is useful in many ways. It assesses your risk for many diseases, such as kidney disease, diabetes, cystitis and vesical calculu. Urine is a waste substance from our blood filtered by the kidney and eliminated out of our body. Urine is composed of 95% water, 2.5% urea, and 2.5% of other substances. Normally, we would urinate around 3-5 times during the day; by volume is around 1-2 litres per day.
A urine test in a laboratory can be divided into 3 types as follow: 1. Physical examination – a check on the volume, colour, smell, turbidity, and the specific gravity of urine. Normal urine would have amber colour. A change may indicate dysfunction of the kidney or metabolism. New urine would usually be in clear colour, but may be more turbid if left for a while. Turbidity of urine caused by abnormality may come from having too many white blood cells, bacteria, or fat in the urine. The specific gravity will indicate the ability to control the concentration of body fluids of the kidneys.
The average stage is 1.005 to 1.030. 2. Chemical examination – will help identify abnormal condition of our body at primary stage as follow: To check the acidity (pH) that indicates the capacity of renal function, where the average stage is 5-8. To check for any chemicals in the urine. In general, it should not be detected or tested negative. However, if our body is in bad conditions or has any dysfunctional, such as patients with chronic kidney disease, older people where protein is usually found in their urine, or patients with diabetes where having poor glucose control would led to excess sugar in their urine. 3. Microscopic examination – is the most important part of urine test as it would give a more accurate diagnosis. Since there are cases where you could not find any abnormality with the physical and chemical examinations, but discover such abnormality with the microscopic examination. The following are what can be found in urine sediment.
Urothelium cells would indicate an inflammatory or dysfunctional urinary tract., White blood cells, igh levels of bacteria, or fungus may indicate infection in the genitourinary tracts, cystitis, or pyelitis, etc., Red blood cells may be a result from or indicate concussion incident, tumor, vesical calculus, kidney calculi, or inflammation., Any sort of crystals and protein may indicate thrombosis caused by vesical calculus or kidney calculi. The accuracy of the test also depends on the collection of the fluids. The correct way to collect the urine for the laboratory is to collect in the middle period of urination, where you have already urinated a little to clean the urethra.
You should collect around 10-15 millilitres of the urine in a clean container and let out the rest. Women should avoid getting a urine test during menstruation or inform the staff before the test to avoid any misinterpretation on the test result. As you can see, just an easy urine test will allow you to know a lot more about your body. So are you ready for your annual health checkup? Contributed by Health Lab Hua Hin