1st October – People’s Republic of China
The National Day of the People’s Republic of China is a public holiday celebrated annually on 1st October as the national day of the People’s Republic of China, commemorating the formal proclamation of the establishment of the People’s Republic of China on 1st October 1949.
The Chinese Communist Party victory in the Chinese Civil War resulted in the Kuomintang retreat to Taiwan and the Chinese Communist Revolution whereby the People’s Republic of China replaced the Republic of China. Although it is observed on 1 October, another six days are normally added to the official holiday in lieu of the two weekend breaks around 1st October, making it a de facto public holiday comprising seven consecutive days also known as .olden Week, the specifics are regulated by the State Council.
Festivities and concerts are usually held nationwide on this day, with a grand military parade and mass pageant event held on selected years. The parade held on 1st October 2019 marked the 70th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China.
3rd October – Germany
German Unity Day is the National Day in Germany. Celebrated on the 3rd October as a public holiday it commemorates German reunification in 1990 when the Federal Republic of Germany, (West Germany), and the German Democratic Republic, (East Germany), were unified, so that for the first time since 1945 there existed a single German state. German Unity Day on 3rd October has been the German National Holiday since 1990, when the reunification was formally completed.
An alternative choice to commemorate the reunification could have been the day the Berlin Wall came down, 9th November 1989, which coincided with the anniversary of the proclamation of the German Republic in 1918, and the defeat of Hitler’s first coup in 1923. However, 9th November was also the anniversary of the first large-scale Naai-led pogroms against Jews in 1938, (Kristallnacht), so the day was considered inappropriate as a national holiday.
Therefore the 3rd October, the date of the formal reunification, was chosen instead and replaced the 17th June, ‘Day of German Unity’ in use since 1954, as the national holiday 1 of the Federal Republic of Germany.
12th October – Spain
The National Day of Spain is the official name of the national festivity of Spain. It is held annually on 12th October and is a national holiday. It is also traditionally referred to as the ‘Dia de la Hispanidad’, commemorating the Spanish legacy to the world, especially in America.
The celebration of the National Day of Spain is the day the Spanish people commemorate the history of the country, recognizing and giving value to what has been achieved together and to reconfirm the commitment for the future of the nation. The 12th of October celebrates union and brotherhood, also showing the ties of Spain with the international community.
26th October – Austria
The Declaration of Neutrality was a declaration by the Austrian Parliament declaring the country permanently neutral. It was enacted on 26th October 1955 as a constitutional act of parliament, i.e., as part of the Constitution of Austria.
Pursuant to resolution of the Federal Assembly of Parliament following the State Treaty, Austria declared “its permanent neutrality of its own accord.” The second section of this law stated that “in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory.”
Formally, the declaration was promulgated voluntarily by the Republic of Austria. Politically, it was the direct consequence of the allied occupation by the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, and France between 1945 and 1955, from which the country was freed by the Austrian State Treaty of 15th May the same year.
The Soviet Union would not have agreed to the State Treaty if Austria had not committed herself to declare her neutrality after the allied forces had left the country.